Biological adulthood[ edit ] A group of adult people Historically and cross-culturally, adulthood has been determined primarily by the start of puberty [ citation needed ] the appearance of secondary sex characteristics such as menstruation in women, ejaculation in men, and pubic hair in both sexes. In the past, a person usually moved from the status of child directly to the status of adult, often with this shift being marked by some type of coming-of-age test or ceremony. Thus, there are now two primary forms of adults: Depending on the context, adult can indicate either definition.
Although inadequacies in quantifying personality traits and difficulties in studying estimates of time spans exceeding a few seconds have hampered scientific study, simple observation reveals marked individual differences in the ability to estimate time.
Sex differences have not been reliably established, but the… Physiological type theories The idea that people fall into certain personality type categories in relation to bodily characteristics has intrigued numerous modern psychologists as well as their counterparts among the ancients.
This paper reveals a theory of personality based on the formation of intimate relationships during the early stages of a person's lifetime. During infancy, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, new needs and tensions arise in the individual. Understanding adult development is an important step in the process of understanding how societies function. This lesson will focus on three theories of adult development proposed by Daniel. Development in Late Adulthood Erik Erikson suggests that at this time it is important to find meaning and satisfaction in life rather than to become bitter and disillusioned, that .
The idea that people must fall into one or another rigid personality class, however, has been largely dismissed. Two general sets of theories are considered here, the humoral and the morphological.
Humoral theories Perhaps the oldest personality theory known is contained in the cosmological writings of the Greek philosopher and physiologist Empedocles and in related speculations of the physician Hippocrates.
This theory, with its view that body chemistry determines temperament, has survived in some form for more than 2, years. According to these early theorists, emotional stability as well as general health depend on an appropriate balance among the four bodily humours; an excess of one may produce a particular bodily illness or an exaggerated personality trait.
Thus, a person with an excess of blood would be expected to have a sanguine temperament—that is, to be optimistic, enthusiastic, and excitable. Too much black bile dark blood perhaps mixed with other secretions was believed to produce a melancholic temperament.
An abundance of phlegm secreted in the respiratory passages was alleged to make people stolid, apatheticand undemonstrative. As biological science has progressed, these primitive ideas about body chemistry have been replaced by more complex ideas and by contemporary studies of hormones, neurotransmitters, and substances produced within the central nervous systemsuch as endorphins.
Morphological body type theories Related to the biochemical theories are those that distinguish types of personalities on the basis of body shape somatotype.
Such a morphological theory was developed by the German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer. In his book Physique and Characterfirst published inhe wrote that among his patients a frail, rather weak asthenic body build as well as a muscular athletic physique were frequently characteristic of schizophrenic patients, while a short, rotund pyknic build was often found among manic-depressive patients.
Kretschmer extended his findings and assertions in a theory that related body build and personality in all people and wrote that slim and delicate physiques are associated with introversion, while those with rounded heavier and shorter bodies tend to be cyclothymic—that is, moody but often extroverted and jovial.
Despite early hopes that body types might be useful in classifying personality characteristics or in identifying psychiatric syndromes, the relations observed by Kretschmer were not found to be strongly supported by empirical studies.
In the s more elaborate studies by William H. Sheldon in the United States developed a system for assigning a three-digit somatotype number to people, each digit with a range from 1 to 7.
Thus, an extreme endomorph would bean extreme ectomorphand an average person Sheldon then developed a item list of traits that differentiated three separate categories of behaviours or temperaments. The three-digit temperament scale appeared to be significantly related to the somatotype profile, an association that failed to excite personologists.
Also during the s, personality studies began to consider the broader social context in which a person lived. The American anthropologist Margaret Mead studied the patterns of cooperation and competition in 13 primitive societies and was able to document wide variations in those behaviours in different societies.
In her book Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societiesshe showed that masculinity is not necessarily expressed through aggressiveness and that femininity is not necessarily expressed through passivity and acquiescence.
These demonstrated variations raised questions about the relative roles of biologylearningand cultural pressures in personality characteristics. Freud Perhaps the most influential integrative theory of personality is that of psychoanalysiswhich was largely promulgated during the first four decades of the 20th century by the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud.
Although its beginnings were based in studies of psychopathology, psychoanalysis became a more general perspective on normal personality development and functioning.
The field of investigation began with case studies of so-called neurotic conditions, which included hysteriaobsessive-compulsive disorders, and phobic conditions. Patients with hysterical symptoms complained of acute shortness of breath, paralyses, and contractures of limbs for which no physical cause could be found.
In the course of interviews, Freud and his early coworker and mentor, the Austrian physician Josef Breuernoted that many of their patients were unsure of how or when their symptoms developed and even seemed indifferent to the enormous inconvenience the symptoms caused them.
It was as if the ideas associated with the symptoms were quarantined from the consciousness and lay neglected by normal curiosity. To explain this strange pattern Breuer and Freud made two assumptions.
The first was based on the general scientific position of determinismwhich was quite prevalent in 19th-century science: The second assumption entailed unconscious psychological processes; that is, ideas continue to be active, to change, and to influence behaviour even when they are outside of awareness.
One source for this assumption was the observation of posthypnotic suggestion, which seemed to imply that past experiences, surviving outside of consciousness as latent memories, could be activated by a signal from the environment and could then influence behaviour even though the hypnotized person was unaware of the reasons for his behaviour.
These events were considered to have been sexual in nature, and further exploration convinced Freud that his patients had had even earlier troublesome sexual experiences—usually seductions—the memories of which had lain dormant until awakened by a more recent sexual encounter.
Freud reasoned that the earlier seduction experience imparted to the later one its pathogenic force. Freud at first accepted many of the experiences reported by his young, impressionable patients as actual seductions.
He later came to believe that many, though not all, of the narrations were fantasies. Based upon this conviction Freud formulated a theory indicating that personality is shaped by such experiences as well as by other traumatic or frustrating events.
He postulated that the fantasies about sexual traumas were expressions of a sexual drive. Neurosis and personality in general came to be viewed as outcomes of conflict between sexual motivations and defenses against them, the conflict being rooted in early child development.
Freud assumed that his patients were motivated to ward off those fantasies that had an exciting as well as a repelling quality about them.
Freud described various psychological devices defense mechanisms by which people tried to make the fantasies bearable. For example, in the obsessive-compulsive condition, which refers to persistent unwelcome ideas or recurrent irresistible urges to perform certain acts, such as incessant hand washing, the defense maneuvers are called isolation and displacement.Sigmund Freud's Psychosexual Development Theory Born on May 6, in Moravia, Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who, in the late 19th and early .
1. Describe Erikson's view of integrity. 2. Distinguish among other theories of late-life psychosocial functioning. 3. Identify the individual differences that impact successful aging.
Welcome to "Theories of Personality!" This course and "e-text" will examine a number of theories of personality, from Sigmund Freud's famous psychoanalysis to Viktor Frankl's logotherapy. Late Adulthood Late adulthood is one of eight stages in Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.
It is the last stage in a person’s life- after the age of 65 until death. It is the last stage in a person’s life- after the age of 65 until death. This course provides a basic introduction to the nature of human growth and development as it occurs from conception through adolescence.
Students are provided the opportunity to explore the “what,” “how,” and “when” of physical motor, cognitive, socio-emotional, moral aesthetic, and language development. Peer Commentary. Social Support Networks and Their Role in Depression Nathanial C.
Lowe Rochester Institute of Technology. For most individuals with a healthy social support network, major stressors in life can be more easily handled.