Birth Olive leaf used to represent birth. Tested at birth for signs of weakness. Would be left to die if he had any weaknesses.
Numerical strength[ edit ] The Diadochi were capable of deploying some of the largest armies of their day, and could easily outmatch the numerical strength of either Phillip II or Alexander's Macedonian full strength contingents.
However, the size of the armies participating in different campaigns could vary extremely, from a few thousand to over 70, Of these armies, outside Greece, only a fraction would have been of Greek origin, the rest being allied contingents and conscripts from the local population.
The lack of manpower was a serious concern for many Hellenistic rulers. In fact, the disparity between the manpower reserves available to Rome and to any Hellenistic monarch had a profound influence on the way in which the opponents made war. Many states had to rely on mercenaries to bulk up their citizen forces: For example, the army of the Achaean League under Aratus of Sicyon was re-organized to contain a permanent corps of mercenaries that numbered 8, foot and horse, compared with the corps of picked Achaean troops, which numbered only 3, foot and horse.
The inchoate reforms of Agis IV in the s BC had failed after a reaction by those opposed to the reforms. The problem of the lack of man-at-arms was then taken up by Cleomenes III of Sparta, who attempted to address it by his radical reforms.
Cleomenes launched a coup against his rivals at home and used their demise to push forward a reform to increase Spartan manpower. In BC, Cleomenes cancelled all debts, pooled and divided the large estates and increased the citizen body by enfranchising 5, Perioikoi and 'metics' resident foreigners.
Before long, he increased the citizen body further by allowing Helots to buy their freedom for five minae and therefore he 'acquired talents, some of which he used to arm 2, men in the Macedonian fashion as phalangites'.
With such a small population, and such drastic losses in battle, the Antigonid king had to think radically as to how to improve his state's performance in the next war.
In between the Second and Third Macedonian Wars, Philip V embarked on a major reform and re-organization of the kingdom. Expansion could secure 'the great reservoir of available man-power'  that lay north in Thrace.
Philip then transported segments of the populations of the coastal cities to the northern frontiers and moved those Thracians south. This, combined with economic and political moves, re-built Macedonia and allowed for PerseusPhilip's successor, to be in a stronger position.
Perseus had enough grain to last the army ten years without drawing on harvestsenough money to hire 10, mercenaries for ten years, and field an army of 43, men, a significant improvement compared to the situation of Philip V at Cynoscephalae in BC, who fielded an army of 25, men.
The basis of their militaries relied on Greeks, which were obviously not common to the areas that they ruled over. In order to overcome this, these kingdoms set up military colonies, known as Klerouchoi, to settle mercenaries and others from Greece. The system would allow for the colonists to be given a plot of land and in return they would provide military service when needed.
In Ptolemaic Egypt, for example, soldiers and officers were given lots 'in exchange for military service, whenever needed'.
Tarn even suggests that the Greek known to the Indians as 'Yavanas' population in India may not have been as small as one would suppose, stating 'there may well have been many more Yavanas The Hellenistic armies based their strength on the pike-bearing phalanx, the legacy of Philip II and Alexander the Great.
Throughout the age of the Diadochi and the Epigonoi, the phalanx, as the line of the pikemen was commonly referred to by ancient authors, remained the backbone of armies as diverse as those of Antiochos III and Philip V. The phalanx was an infantry formation, characterized by dense ranks and pikes sarissas.
Their soldiers known as phalangites ranged from professional warriors, drilled in tactics, weapon use and formation, typically of Greek origin, to basically trained, non-Greek villagers, as was the case in the army of Ptolemy Philopatorthe victor of Raphia.
Certain reforms in the weight of the phalangite equipment and the conscription methods used, turned the phalanx from a maneuverable formation into a bulky, slow moving steam roller, whose charge no enemy was able to withstand.
Maneuvers like the fake retreat of Phillip II at Chaeronea or the oblique advance of Alexander at Arbela were never again attempted, but still, as long as the phalanx remained on relatively level terrain and its flanks were kept secure, it was not conquered by any other formation.
Although it has been argued that the role of the phalanx on the battlefield was to act as an anchor for the entire army, holding the enemy in place, pushing him back, exerting a heavy toll on enemy morale, while the cavalry struck the enemy flanks and delivered the fatal blow to cripple their opponents, in most battles it was used as the main weapon to achieve victory.Athens and Sparta Athens and Sparta were two of the mightiest, most prominent, and famous city-states in Ancient Greece.
Within these two city-states there were very many similarities and differences whether that is culturally, politically, or generally. Jan 03, · Best Answer: The two cities of Athens and Sparta were bitter rivals in ancient times in Greece.
Geographically they are very close to each other, but very different in their values, life styles, and culture. - The two rivals of ancient Greece that made the most noise and gave us the most traditions were Athens and caninariojana.com: Resolved.
The cities of Athens and Sparta were bitter rivals in ancient Greece. Geographically they are very close to each other, but have sometimes had very different values, lifestyles, and cultures.
About The capital and largest city of Greece. Known in Greek as Sparti.
The city lies at the southern end of. The Free Congress Commentary By William S. Lind. On War # November 26, In the Fox’s Lair. William S.
Lind. One reason parts of Iraq have quieted down, at least for a while, has received widespread attention: the Sunni split from al-Qaeda. May 01, · This is a brief overview of some differences between the city-states of Athens and Sparta in ancient Greece.
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