Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. October Nihilism has many definitions, and thus can describe multiple arguably independent philosophical positions. Metaphysical nihilism Metaphysical nihilism is the philosophical theory that posits that concrete objects and physical constructs might not exist in the possible worldor that even if there exist possible worlds that contain some concrete objects, there is at least one that contains only abstract objects. Extreme metaphysical nihilism is commonly defined as the belief that nothing exists as a correspondent component of the self-efficient world.
Nihilism has many definitions and is thus used to describe philosophical positions which are arguably independent. Metaphysical nihilism Metaphysical nihilism is the philosophical theory that there might be no objects at all, i. An extreme form of metaphysical nihilism is commonly defined as the belief that existence itself does not exist.
It could be argued that this belief, once combined with epistemological nihilism, leaves one with an all-encompassing nihilism in which nothing can be said to be real or true as such values do not exist.
A similar position can be found in solipsism ; however, in this viewpoint the solipsist affirms whereas the nihilist would deny the self. Both these positions are forms of anti-realism. Existential nihilism Existential nihilism is the belief that life has no intrinsic meaning or value.
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With respect to the universe, existential nihilism posits that a single human or even the entire human species is insignificant, without purpose and unlikely to change in the totality of existence. The meaninglessness of life is largely explored in the philosophical school of existentialism.
Moral nihilism Moral nihilismalso known as ethical nihilism, is the meta-ethical view that morality does not exist as something inherent to objective reality; therefore no action is necessarily preferable to any other.
For example, a moral nihilist would say that killing someone, for whatever reason, is not inherently right or wrong. Other nihilists may argue not that there is no morality at all, but that if it does exist, it is a human and thus artificial construction, wherein any and all meaning is relative for different possible outcomes.
As an example, if someone kills someone else, such a nihilist might argue that killing is not inherently a bad thing, bad independently from our moral beliefs, only that because of the way morality is constructed as some rudimentary dichotomy, what is said to be a bad thing is given a higher negative weighting than what is called good: In this way a moral nihilist believes that all moral claims are false.
The Nihilist movement in 19th century Russia espoused a similar doctrine. Political nihilism is rather different from other forms of nihilism, and is generally considered to be more like a form of utilitarianism.
With the popularizing of the word nihilism by Turgenev, a new Russian political movement called the Nihilism movement adopted the term. They supposedly called themselves nihilists because nothing "that then existed found favor in their eyes.
One person can head a rebellion, but one person cannot head this levelling process, for that would make him a leader and he would avoid being levelled. Each individual can in his little circle participate in this levelling, but it is an abstract process, and levelling is abstraction conquering individuality.
Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche Nihilism is often associated with the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzschewho provided a detailed diagnosis of nihilism as a widespread phenomenon of Western culture.
Nietzsche characterized nihilism as emptying the world and especially human existence of meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value.
Interpreting is something we can not go without; in fact, it is something we need. One way of interpreting the world is through morality, as one of the fundamental ways in which people make sense of the world, especially in regard to their own thoughts and actions.
Nietzsche distinguishes a morality that is strong or healthy, meaning that the person in question is aware that he constructs it himself, from weak morality, where the interpretation is projected on to something external. The complete destruction of all meaning and all values would lead to an existence of apathy and stillness, where positive actions, affirmative actions, would be replaced by a state of reaction and destruction.
This is the prophecy of "der letzte Mensch", the last man the most despicable man, devoid of values, incapable of self-realization through creation of his own good and evil, devoid of any "will to power" Wille zur Macht.
In this sense, in constructing a world where objective knowledge is possible, Christianity is an antidote against a primal form of nihilism, against the despair of meaninglessness.
However, it is exactly the element of truthfulness in Christian doctrine that is its undoing: It is therefore that Nietzsche states that we have outgrown Christianity "not because we lived too far from it, rather because we lived too close.
Because Christianity was an interpretation that posited itself as the interpretation, Nietzsche states that this dissolution leads beyond skepticism to a distrust of all meaning. Rejection of idealism thus results in nihilism, because only similarly transcendent ideals would live up to the previous standards that the nihilist still implicitly holds.
Nietzsche characterises this ascetic attitude as a "will to nothingness ," whereby life turns away from itself, as there is nothing of value to be found in the world. This mowing away of all value in the world is characteristic of the nihilist, although in this, the nihilist appears to be inconsistent : A nihilist is a man who judges of the world as it is that it ought not to be, and of the world as it ought to be that it does not exist.
According to this view, our existence action, suffering, willing, feeling has no meaning: He approaches the problem of nihilism as a deeply personal one, stating that this problem of the modern world is a problem that has "become conscious" in him.
I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity.religion: ‘The astonishing thing about the ancient Greeks’ religiosity is the tremendous wealth of gratitude pouring forth from it: only a very noble kind of person can face nature and life like this!’ (§49).
Anton Chekhov portrayed nihilism when writing Three Sisters. The phrase “what does it matter” or such variants is often spoken by several characters in response to events; the significance of some of these events suggests a subscription to nihilism by said characters as a type of coping strategy.
and in his philosophical essay The Rebel. Nietzsche's Utile Philosophy of History Essay Nietzsche's Utile Philosophy of History History, contends Nietzsche, is not something to be wholly embraced for its own sake, but something which when used in moderation to further the activity of man motivates his life towards justice.
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An Alternative Non Philosophy.