Overview[ edit ] Between and Malthus published six editions of his famous treatise, updating each edition to incorporate new material, to address criticism, and to convey changes in his own perspectives on the subject. Malthus also constructed his case as a specific response to writings of William Godwin — and of the Marquis de Condorcet — He explained this phenomenon by arguing that population growth generally expanded in times and in regions of plenty until the size of the population relative to the primary resources caused distress: This constant effort as constantly tends to subject the lower classes of the society to distress and to prevent any great permanent amelioration of their condition".
Social Security Trust Fund: Payroll taxes and revenues add to the fund, while expenses payouts reduce it. Non-employee contractors are responsible for the entire If a covered worker dies, his or her spouse and children may receive survivors' benefits.
Social Security accounts are not the property of their beneficiary and are used solely to determine benefit levels. Social Security funds are not invested on behalf of beneficiaries. Instead, current tax receipts are used to pay current benefits the system known as " pay-as-you-go "as is typical of some insurance and defined-benefit plans.
However, without further legislation, or change in benefits, this annual surplus will change to a deficit around when payments begin to exceed receipts and interest thereafter.
The fiscal pressures are due to demographic trends, where the number of workers paying into the program continues declining relative to those receiving benefits. Demographics[ edit ] The number of workers paying into the program was 5.
Federal Reserve Chairman Bernanke has indicated that the aging of the population is a long-term trend, rather than a proverbial "pig moving through the python ".
The number receiving retirement benefits rose by 1.
Social Security Trust Fund Social Essay on social security reform payroll taxes and interest received are added to the Fund, while expenses payments to recipients are deducted from the Fund.
Expenses exceeded tax receipts in The Trust Fund is projected to continue to grow for several years thereafter because of interest income from loans made to the US Treasury. However, the funds from loans made have been spent along with other revenues in the general funds in satisfying annual budgets.
At some point, however, absent any change in the law, the Social Security Administration will finance payment of benefits through the net redemption of the assets in the Trust Fund. Because those assets consist solely of U.
To finance such a projected call on the general fund, some combination of increasing taxes, cutting other government spending or programs, selling government assets, or borrowing would be required. The balances in the Trust Fund are projected to be depleted either by  OASDI Trustees' projectionor by  Congressional Budget Office's extended-baseline scenario assuming proper and continuous repayment of the outstanding treasury notes.
At that point, under current law, the system's benefits would have to be paid from the FICA tax alone. Payroll tax rates were cut during and as a stimulus measure; these cuts expired at the end of Transfers of other government funds made the program "whole" as if these tax cuts had not occurred.
In other words, this amount would have to be set aside today such that the principal and interest would cover the shortfall over the next 75 years. Members of Congress cannot simultaneously claim that the tax cuts for people at the top are affordable while the Social Security shortfall constitutes a dire fiscal threat.
This latter figure is the one commonly reported in the media. Key points of philosophical debate include, among others: Indeed, Social Security has been called "the third rail of American politics"  — meaning that any politician sparking fears about cuts in benefits by touching the program endangers his or her political career.
The New York Times wrote in January that Social Security and Medicare "have proved almost sacrosanct in political terms, even as they threaten to grow so large as to be unsustainable in the long run".
Social Security taxes paid into the system cannot be passed to future generations, as private accounts can, thereby preventing the accumulation of wealth to some degree. Conservatives also argue that the U.
Constitution does not permit the Congress to set up a savings plan for retirees leaving this authority to the statesalthough the U. Supreme Court ruled in Helvering v. Davis that Congress had this authority.
Liberal ideological arguments[ edit ] Liberals argue that government has the obligation to provide social insurance, through mandatory participation and broad program coverage.Music, Film, TV and Political News Coverage.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Music, Film, TV and Political News Coverage. Our website is the source for the latest security and strategic research from the military's link to the academic community.
The Strategic Studies Institute is . Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback. Professor Cara Daggett, who teaches classes on politics and global security at Virginia Tech, is warning that fossil fuels are contributing to a warped sense of “masculine identity” and.